It is common for builders and operators in the construction industry to utilise contractors to carry out specific trade skills such as concreting, plastering, bricklaying and plumbing.
Business operators however, need to be cautious when ‘hiring’ skilled or other labour to ensure that they are not in breach of provisions of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) (the ‘Act’). The Act prohibits a person from misrepresenting ‘employment’ as ‘independent contracting’, otherwise known as ‘sham arrangements’.
These sham arrangements have been predominant in the construction industry and are illegal.
It is important for business operators to understand the difference between an independent contractor and employee.
Example of a sham arrangement
Sham contracting came back to haunt Royans Wagga Pty Ltd in the 2017 case, Putland v Royans Wagga  FCA 910. Royans Wagga was a business primarily running truck repairs. Linda and Shane Putland performed work for Royans Wagga over many years in a call centre, obtaining and passing on information about vehicle accidents to Royans Wagga sales representatives so that repair work could be secured.
If the Putlands could prove that they were employees and not independent contractors, they stood to gain significant back pay and payment in lieu of reasonable notice of termination. Meanwhile Royans Wagga stood down the barrel of a long list of contraventions of the Act and pecuniary penalties. It therefore denied the employer-employee relationship, arguing that the Putlands were independent contractors.
As is often the case, a number of factors pointed towards either relationship. Bromwich J had to balance these factors against each other and arrive at a conclusion.
Is someone an employee or an independent contractor?
The distinction between an employee and independent contractor is not always easy to determine. Generally, the Fair Work Commission or a Court will look behind the label given to the arrangement by the parties to identify the factual substance of the relationship. How one party or both parties view the relationship is not determinative of the issue.
Primarily, an employment relationship is an exchange of labour (time, skill and effort) for remuneration – the employee serves the employer as opposed to carrying on a business in his or her own right.
If the worker is acting as an entrepreneur who owns and operates an enterprise and as a representative of its own business, then it is more likely that the worker is an independent contractor.
The entirety of the relationship is analysed which might consider the following factors:
- the degree of control that a business operator can exercise over a worker engaged to perform work (whether the control is actually exercised or whether just the potential exists);
- whether the worker works exclusively for the business operator;
- the provision of a uniform, business cards, tools etc. from the business operator;
- whether the worker undertakes work personally or is free to delegate to others;
- the location of the work;
- the method of payment for the work performed – whether at an hourly rate or on completion of a specific project, whether wages are paid or there is a commission;
- the responsibility for acquisition and maintenance of equipment;
- the creation of goodwill of saleable assets through the work performed;
- the allocation of risk and profit associated with the work;
- the degree of integration the worker has with the entity for which it works;
- the existence of leave, taxation, superannuation payments, etc;
- how ‘business-like’ is the business of the business operator – are there systems, manuals, invoices etc;
- the right of the business operator to dictate the place of work, hours of work etc. of the worker
This list is not exhaustive.
In the case above, Royans Wagga required the Putlands to obtain ANBs, it issued tax invoices in lump-sum amounts, it did not deduct income tax, it did not require uniforms to be worn, and it paid others to do work.
On the other side of the scales, the Putlands only worked for Royans Wigans, their telephone and internet accounts were paid by Royans Wigan, they had their office equipment supplied, they did not advertise any business run by themselves, their work led to Royans Wigans accruing goodwill, and they lacked ‘true autonomy’ in their work. Evidence also indicated the managing director of Royans Wigans had authority to control and issued directions and approvals to the Putlands.
Bromwich J decided it was an employee-employer relationship, to Royans Wagga’s significant detriment.
Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting
A business operator is prohibited from offering a person a role as an independent contractor when the relationship between the parties is really one of employer-employee.
Section 357 of the Act states: ‘A person (the employer) that employs, or proposes to employ, an individual must not represent to the individual that the contract of employment under which the individual is, or would be, employed by the employer is a contract for services under which the individual performs, or would perform, work as an independent contractor.’
To take advantage of a sham arrangement, the employer would insist that the ‘contractor’ obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN) and create his or her own business before commencing work. The worker is generally responsible for paying his or her own taxes and insurances.
The worker is treated as an independent contractor and the employer circumvents the obligations that would normally arise from an employer-employee relationship. Consequently, by signing up as an independent contractor, the worker foregoes access to employment entitlements such as payment for annual and sick leave, long service leave, compulsory superannuation contributions and protection from unfair dismissal or termination of employment.
For contractors who are genuinely running a business as a profit-making enterprise this is not problematic. However, in the case of a sham arrangement, the workers may earn a higher hourly rate, but perhaps not conducive to a profit-making enterprise, from which they must pay their own tax, insurance and superannuation. In such circumstances, the sham arrangement results in the employer ‘getting its cake and eating it too’.
Sham arrangements are illegal
It is illegal to inform a someone that he or she is an independent contractor if they are actually an employee. It is also illegal to dismiss an employee or threaten to dismiss an employee for the purpose of ‘re-engaging’ them in predominantly the same work as they performed whilst they were employed.
Similarly, a person must not induce a former employee to carry out the same type of work as when they were employed under the guise of an independent contractor arrangement. Where an employer employs or has at any time employed an individual to perform particular work, the Act also makes it illegal for the employer to make a statement that they know is false in order to persuade the individual to perform substantially the same work as an independent contractor.
Businesses entering sham arrangements risk significant civil penalties and potential claims for back-pay of employee entitlements such as annual leave payments, sick leave and superannuation contributions.
Why do businesses use sham arrangements?
A sham arrangement may result from simple ignorance on the part of the business owner or a desire to minimise costs. A worker may even indicate that he or she is ‘happy’ with the arrangement.
Sham arrangements may be prevalent during the start-up phase of a new business where cashflow is limited and the future success of the enterprise unknown. Conversely, businesses may have been running sham arrangements for some time.
The temptation to use ‘contractors’ instead of employing staff usually flows from a desire to circumvent the financial and other responsibilities that arise from an employment relationship. If the business takes on workers as independent contractors rather than as employees, the business need not comply with nationally-recognised employment conditions, annual leave, sick leave, workers’ compensation or termination processes.
If you are considering engaging workers for your building projects, you should think carefully about the arrangements to determine whether your workers are truly independent contractors or employees. If you are unsure, obtain legal advice.
Failing to do so could lead to significant costs down the line.
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